Images of the past: colonial guanabara bay and the european military cartography

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Leandro Andrei Beser de Deus

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Paulo Márcio Leal de Menezes

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Show me a geographer who doesn’t need or want them around them (maps) constantly and I will have my doubts if he made the correct choice in his life. The map speaks through the barrier of language. (SAUER, 1963)

Space and time are fundamental elements that enable us to understand the phenomena evolution. There are several applications and studies demands that require both concepts. In Geography, for instance, space and time are responsible for the comprehension of the social-spatial dynamics. Thus, space-time studies are essential to establish the understanding of such evident integration of these two terms, frequently analyzed in a disconnected and isolated way.

Regarding these matters, the paper presented is related to the Historical-Geography area, considering Historical Cartography as the main source of the geographic space analysis. According to KNAUSS (1997), cartography is an old human habit of reflection about the space and therefore, it must be critically used in the attempt to understand the development of geographic space throughout time.

Historical Cartography has been considered lately as an important support source to geographic space analysis in various applications, amongst which can be pointed out the structure, the development and the evolution of areas, the occupation and land use, the search and research for elements and the geographic features modified by the landscape, landscape alterations caused by earthworks, rectification of the hydrography, hills dismount, etc. According to MENEZES (et al., 2005), Historical Cartography objective is to study maps and old cartographic representations, made in the past according to old techniques and methods.

To this Historical Cartography study, one intends to highlight the Military Cartography, which is understood as the cartographic part that shows military aspects. Old military maps, as historical sources, will be read and studied critically, because rather than representing the space, they represent what the cartographer or the institution who made it, wished to show graphically.

Lately, the studies involving Historical Cartography can be subsidized by tools as the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) which help making decisions and have already enabled the development of some analysis methods, planning and decision regarding the geographic space. The use of a space-time model in GIS increases its analysis capability, making the study of the geographic phenomena evolution possible.

The importance of Historical Cartography and Geotechnologies integration especially with the GIS, reflects in the capability these two disciplines will have to organize the data gathered and to provide a past spatial dynamics comprehension of` the spatial scale chosen to be studied despite its limitations, restrictions and different analysis methods.

Figure 1 – Center of Rio de Janeiro – 1838 – Original e Centro of Rio de Janeiro – Atlas 1965 based in map of 1930 (MENEZES et al., 2005).
The scene chosen for the study is the Guanabara Bay region, located in the Captainship of Rio De Janeiro (Brazil). The study will be subsidized by the European Military Cartography (specifically from Portugal, France, Spain and England), regarding the Brazilian colonial period (since the arrival of the Portuguese until 1822), that stands out the geopolitical interest in Rio de Janeiro. The choice of the region was made due to its spatial scale full of transformations (that took place throughout History since the sixteenth century). As we know all process requires time, this one could be considered the ideal study for the accomplishment of the paper. The "focus-process" of this work fits the action of Portuguese Cartographic Politics in Colonial Brazil. Those politics were responsible for the occupation, defense and territorial management and ended up in various spatial configurations, in addition to acting in the spatial financial valuation of lots of fragments from Guanabara Bay and its surroundings, throughout time. Moreover, there are other historical interests which were crucial for the history of occupation of the Bay by Spain, France and England.

In order to study this space, we must draw a comparison between it and two other types of scales. The first is the framing scale that corresponds to the captainship or the state of the Rio de Janeiro and enables us to understand the changes that could be observed in this littoral band. The other scale includes local and urban space maps as well as buildings plants, however, only in the military scope. The reflections about the comparison between this cartographic universe is the main concern of this work.

Figure 2 – Guanabara Bay – 1586, 1698 e 1767 (adapted of COSTA, 2004).
As has already been evidenced, Guanabara Bay is a spatial scale full of historical information. Its dynamics has been through changes at specific and non-identified time intervals. Facing these facts, some questions that can be answered or thought considering the analysis subsidized by the Historical Cartography and by a Temporal Geographic Information System. The central problematic lies to the occupation and defense of Guanabara Bay, which will be analyzed through the comparison of its Portuguese, Spanish, Frenchmen and English representations with different objectives and standpoints. These different points of view will improve the understanding of the conjectural representations dealt with in computational environments. The cartographic representations will disclose military interests through occupation strategies and some spatial tendencies. Consequently, the spatial dynamics financial valuation of some scales will be more easily understood.
The main objective of this paper is to understand the modifications in the space organization of Guanabara Bay starting from the Portuguese, Spanish, French and English cartographic production in the Brazilian colonial period, based on specific methodology for historical-geographic studies. Such methodology resulted from a careful analysis of old maps and of the integration of Historical Cartography with the Geotechnologies, in order to support works aimed at the understanding of the transformations and/or spatial scales evolution in regional and urban areas.
In the general scope, this work can be justified as a theoretical and methodological reflection as well as a source of information to be incorporated to the historical-geographic and cartographic property of the countries involved, strengthening the scientific and technological cooperation between Latin America and the European Union. In the specific scope, in order to develop the paper, two types of difficulties which must be equated can be cited, justifying the present paper:

  • The first one lies inside a historical domain, especially regarding the historical research sources, its origins (since they can be found in various countries), representations and interpretations and the absence of maps of some colonial periods of Rio de Janeiro.

  • The other one lies inside a personal domain regarding the time insertion problems in GIS, where several impeditive aspects for the accomplishment of this work can be observed.

The work will be carried out on the following phases (detailed in the items below), showing the methodology to be applied to the paper:

  • Phase 1: Bibliographical survey;

  • Phase 2: Cartographic, Geographic and Historical Data Acquisition

  • Phase 3: Temporal compartmentalization of the Study Periods:

  • Phase 4: Cartographic Historical Bases Spatial integration;

  • Phase 4.1: Digitalization and rasterization

  • Phase 4.2: Vectorization

  • Phase 4.3: Validation;

  • Phase 4.4: Georeferencing;

  • Phase 5: Graphical and Tabular Data Treatment;

  • Phase 5.1: Space-Temporal analogical analyses;

  • Phase 5.2: Space-Temporal digital analysis;

  • Phase 6: Conclusions.

Specifically on phase 2, we can already count on some material gathered in Brazil that it will allow us to establish an x-ray of the area which will be allied and compared with the available historical documentation (in archives, libraries, inquiry centers inquiry and also with specialists) gathered in the European institutions.

Figure 3 – Francisco João Honesto Map – 1778 (MENEZES, 2005).
Bellow it is possible to observe some institutions researched preliminarily and some of the contacts established:

  • In Portugal: University of Porto (Universidade do Porto), University of Lisbon (Universidade de Lisboa), Historical Archive of the Army (Instituto Geográfico do Exercito), Services of Engineering Direction (Direcção dos Serviços de Engenharia); Army Geographic Institute (Instituto Geográfico do Exercito), National Library (Biblioteca Nacional), Overseas Historical Archive (Histórico Ultramarino), Portuguese Academy of History (Academia Portuguesa da História), among others. Moreover, the contact and support from Professor João Garcia, Cartography History specialist and supervising professor the present paper.

  • In Spain: Catographic Intitute of Catalunya (Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya), Nautical Museum of Madrid (Museo Naval de Madrid), University of Santiago de Compostela (Facultades de Xeografía e Historia - University of Santiago de Compostela), National Library of Spain (Biblioteca National de España), National Historical Archive (Archivo Histórico Nacional), among others. Contacts made in the ICC (International Cartographic Conference - 2005) in La Corunna; event with publication and participation of the author.

  • France: The National Library of France (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Institut Géographique National), The National Geographic Institute (Institut Géographique National), The National French Archives (Archives Nationales Françaises), Marine Hydrographic Service (Service Hydrographique de la Marine), Section Géographique Militaire, Commission Nationale of toponymie, among others. Contact: Marli Cigagna, in Cartography by the University of Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III), Paris, France.

  • In England: (United Kingdom): various institutions as the British Patrimony, The National Archives, The British Library and contact to be made with the Brazilian Luciana de Lima Martins, researcher of the Social and Cultural Geography Group of Royal Holloway, University of London. This researcher gathered documents in the United Kingdom in which travelers would describe the New World using aesthetic and technical codes to be deciphered by their pairs. She also published a study called “Brazilian Landscapes, British eyes” which contemplates the Brazilian landscapes according to the British point of view. Her temporal scale corresponds to the end of the seventeenth century and part of the eighteenth century, her research period focus, when Great Britain used to be the biggest world-wide power. MARTINS (2001) points out that in this period art and science had never been so close. The eyes which mapped, measured and compared the landscapes features were also delighted by doing a picturesque comparison of the same landscapes. Nowadays, these drawings worth is also historical. MARTINS (2001) claims to have obtained with such drawings, certifications of the past times of Rio de Janeiro as well as clues about the development of a new look towards landscapes and therefore of the emergence of the modern observer.

In summary, this work searched to divulge a study possibility integrating the Historical Cartography, the Military Cartography and the Geotechnologies. The intended study is in the beginning phase of research. However, it already presents some perspectives and possibilities for contacts and products. Some results are waited, such as:

  • Searching for old maps and other sources in European institutions about the Guanabara Bay in the colonial period;

  • Comparing cartographic images made at the same period, following the analogical analysis method;

  • Establishing a geographic and geopolitical comparative study analyzing the moments of each representation of the Bay considering the historical-geographic context of Rio de Janeiro and in other analysis scales;

  • Presenting the technological evolution of the representations. The presence of a projection system, a system of coordinates (spherical or plan), the representation of parallels and meridians, orientation and scales can provide conclusive elements on the cartographic knowledge of the past if compared to the document and the cartographer who made it;

  • Presenting a cartographic evolution of the processes (occupation and defense), maps, letters that represent the Guanabara Bay throughout time, also appealing to the production of conjectural maps;

  • Studying the space organization evolution and the structure of Guanabara Bay, as well as its modifications and consequences for the inhabitants of this area, besides implementing concepts on space financial valuation throughout time;

  • Studying the information mapping techniques indicating a connection between Cartography, Geography, History and Geoprocessing knowledge;

  • Implementing a Temporal Geographic Information System (TGIS) which will organize the gathered data and generate information about it using a space-temporal analysis in addition to it the TGIS will subside this area space organization throughout history.



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