Mapping minorities and their Media: The National Context The Portuguese Report

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Mapping minorities and their Media: The National Context – The Portuguese Report

Mapping minorities and their Media: The National Context – Portugal

Alexandra Figueiredo, OBERCOM

1) Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..p.2

2) The Evolution of the Immigration in Portugal ……………………………………………………………….p.2

3) A list of the most important migration movements …………………………………………………………p.4

4) Rights of the Immigrants in Portugal …………………………………………………………………………p.6

5) A brief discussion of the media policies and the way they relate to minority media ……………………p.9

6) Mapping Diasporic Media …………………………………………………………………………………….p.11

7) Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..p.18

References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..p.20

Annex ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………p.23
Mapping minorities and their Media: The National Context – The Portuguese Report

1) Introduction:

The receptivity of the Portuguese society to the multicultural diversion and to the way that the immigrant communities are integrated in it is marked by the history of colonisation and by the process of decolonisation. Though dating back to the time of colonisation – the first remittance of slaves goes back to the end of the 15th century – the immigration in Portugal in its actual shape is, to a certain extent, a recent process, which coincides with the beginnings of the wars for the independence of the colonies, in the 60s, that have given specific characteristics to the way in which the integration of these communities has been happening.

As a matter of fact, the return of the nationals that had emigrated to the Portuguese colonies, coincides with the immigration of the local communities to the metropolis, within the context of the war for the independence.

A brief incursion in the history of immigration in our country, its immigration and integration policies, as well as a characterisation of the immigrant communities will help the understanding of the actual framework of their integration/ seclusion in the Portuguese society.

Also, as will be seen, although there is legislation concerning media implementation and development in Portuguese ex-colonies, in Portugal there is a total absence of legislation concerning minority media.

2) The Evolution of the Immigration in Portugal

Though the data, mainly in the case of statistics, is scarce, it is possible to date the immigration in Portugal to the times of colonisation and occupation of the Portuguese colonies with the entrance of Africans in our country. The history of immigration in our country proceeds in the 18th Century, with the settlement of the first producers of the Oporto wine that came from England and, later, with the arrival of Russian noblemen, that were in exile after the October Revolution, and with refugees from different origins in Europe, in the 40s, that were victims of the nazi and political persecution and with the settlement, in the South, of various families after the end of the British Empire.

More recently, during the 60s and the 70s, the beginnings of the wars for the independence in the various regions of the former Portuguese Empire overseas have defined a new period in the history of the Portuguese immigration. In fact, ever since that, the migration flows, that assume a regular and continuous character, have been predominantly from African countries where Portuguese is spoken. Therefore, during these years the first movements of returning of the Portuguese from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea and India take place, and one can observe a migration of an economical character, especially from Cape Verde1, of students2 and officials.3.

In the 80s and 90s, there is a maintenance in the predominance of migratory movements from those countries, among which the number of Cape Verden strikes out, to which the number of Brazilian immigrants should be added, thus inverting the flow of the most historic destiny of the Portuguese emigration. The final years of the 90s bring about new shades to the Portuguese immigration. There is a stress on the immigration originated from the European Union and there is a whole new focus that comes from the eastern and central European countries. The motivations differ: in the first case, the motivations of the immigrants are the conditions of life (leisure and work) and the geographical proximity. In the second case, the fall of the Eastern popular democracies in the 90s and the economical difficulties and unemployment that are experienced in those countries, create an encouragement to the flow of the European emigration in the direction East/ West, helped by the mobility granted by the free circulation in the Schengen space.

As it is, the composition of the immigration in Portugal, at the end of the 90s, was characterised, on the one hand, clearly by an immigration of Portuguese speaking people, where the citizens that come from countries where Portuguese is the official language dominate in the demographic composition of the foreigner population and, on the other hand, by the predominance of nationals from the European Union. The most significant foreign community was, in the end of 20004, the Cape Verden community, with 47.217 legal resident citizens, followed by the Brazilian community with 22.411 citizens, and in third and fourth places the Angolan Community and the nationals that came from Guinea with 20.468 and 16.006 legal resident citizens, respectively. The European Union has around 50.947 residents that came from the United Kingdom, Spain, Germany, France, the Netherlands and Italy, diminishing by this order.

To what concerns the new wave of emigration from the East, the figures available refer to the 70.000 immigrants that legalise themselves in 2001, through the regime of permits to stay, in their majority originated from the regions that were part of the former Soviet Union (that gained their independence) with a special emphasis to Ukraine (47.711), Moldavia (9.527), Russia (5.220), as well as Romania (7.837).

3) A list of the most important migration movements

The Cape Verden immigration

With the beginnings of the 60s, the Cape Verden immigration has been continuous and cumulative and therefore it represents the major number of legal residents in Portugal. A lot of these immigrants have, at present, the Portuguese nationality by option or naturalisation. Initially, the population was formed by civil servants, teachers and people connected to the health services, in their majority integrated in the correspondent services in Portugal. The social economical composition of this population has changed and it is slightly lower, as well as its professional qualifications. As a result, a vast majority occupies posts in the industrial sector (namely construction) to what refers to the male population and household services and street selling in the case of the female population.5

The Brazilian immigration

After 1974, Portugal has received a significant amount of Brazilian immigrants, namely the opponents to the Brazilian dictator regime. The migration flow that was started then has assumed a regular and continuous form, which places this community as the second one in terms of number of legal residents. In general, the immigrants arriving in that period have average and higher professional qualifications and occupy posts in the sector of specialised services. Presently, though mainly working in the services sector, the social composition of this community is quite different being much less qualified.6

The Angolan immigration

The Angolan immigration takes place in three different moments. The first moment occurs between 1975 and 1976 when the first residents return (in their majority of European origins and a lot of them of Angolan nationality). Among them there is a vast number of businessmen, tradesmen, civil servants and high officials.7

Between 1977 and 1978, a second movement is observed, this time of people with qualifications and a high social and economical status that did not find a place in the new Angolan society.

A new immigration phase, though at a lower scale, occurs in the 80s and 90s, with the exit of Angolan people with average and low-average qualifications, whose prior objective is to seek a working post and to escape the recrudescence of the civil war in Angola.

The Guinean immigration

The flow of people returning from Guinea was made in a constant manner between 74-75, due to the intensity of the developments of the war in the final part of the colonial period. In the beginnings of the 80s, the economical motivations were preponderant in the exit of the immigrants, and were reinforced slowly but in a constant manner. Young people study in Portugal since the independence and until the present day. The disturbances that Guinea suffered (1998) have aggravated its economical situation, thus seriously affecting its productive infrastructures, and that explains the reason why the people immigrate to Portugal. 8

The Mozambican immigration (number of legal residents in 1999: 4.503)

Although the flow of Mozambican immigrants has been inferior when compared to the Angolan case, the immigration of this community has also been divided in three moments. As it is, a first phase dates from the independence of Mozambique (in 1975), when representatives of all the social classes and various ascendencies left the country: European, African and Asian. A couple of years later, the lack of insertion in the new Mozambican society originated the exit of higher social classes that was followed by a slow but continuous movement of families and individuals that sought employment and residence in Portugal. This exodus of the Mozambican population is characterised by a framing in professions connected with the public administration and liberal professions and, in a much lesser number, with jobs of low professional qualifications, namely related to construction and household services.9

The São Tomean immigration

The migratory flows of this community are much more recent when compared with those that have been previously described. In fact they begin, mainly, from the 90s onwards, when the abolition of the unique party regime led to the economical lack of structure of São Tome, with repercussions such as the loss of jobs and incomes. In spite of the economical difficulties of this community, its qualifications are at an average or high level, mostly obtained in countries of Eastern Europe, in particular in the area of health.10

Asian communities

The roots of this immigration date from 1961, when the occupation of the former State of India by the Indian Union took place. This event originated a strong movement of entrance of Goanese in our country (but also from Mozambique), both from European and Indian ethnic ascendance, whose integration in the Portuguese society was accomplished with success. They are mostly related to the commerce of products imported from the East, as well as other services with ethnic characteristics, namely in the catering sector. The Chinese community, originated from Macao and also from the mainland has accomplished a similar integration to that of the Indian community in the same areas of services.11

4) Rights of the Immigrants in Portugal

According to M.ª Beatriz Rocha Trindade12, “one can consider as ‘immigration policies’, two groups of legislative and regulative measures of an essentially different nature:

  • Measures related to the entrance of foreigners in the country, with a non exclusive tourist purpose;

  • Measures designed to promote the insertion or integration of foreign groups or communities residents in Portugal.” (p. 174)

Also according to the author, to what concerns the first item, one can say that Portugal does not possess an immigration policy, which means that the legislation that establishes and regulates the conditions of entrance of foreigners in the country, from other States that do not belong to the Community, to find a job and residence, is guided by the general dispositions that are part of the agreements of Schengen that Portugal has signed.

The granting of visas to non-exclusive tourist ends (in the case of the countries of origin that demand them) or “entrance permits” in the other cases, both supported by a previous existence of a labour contract, are given in an almost endless way. The same happens when there is a suspicion that a foreign citizen wishes to enter in Portugal with a non-tourist end, but to look for a job.

It is up to the Service of Foreigners and Frontiers (SEF), according to superior orders, to do the sorting and verification of these cases, deciding for the acceptance or rejection of entrance of those citizens. Normally the cases rejected are those in which there is a suspicion of a connection to the traffic of prostitutes or a criminal network of exploitation of clandestine immigration, or suspicious documents, whereas the cases that have to do with the regrouping of a family or legal labour contracts issued by a company or by a Portuguese entity are normally well received.

To what refers to the purpose of achieving the integration of the immigrants in the Portuguese society, the situation is positive in global terms. ( M.ª Beatriz Rocha Trindade, 2000)

The Portuguese Constitution establishes the principle of equality and of non-discrimination of the citizens and the principle of the equalisation of rights among nationals and foreigners (with some exceptions conscripted in the law). If the foreign citizens are legalised in our country they have the right to a health care system, education, protection and social security, and access to courts of law.13 However, as mentioned above, the enforcement of the principles and laws that regulate the rights of foreigners in Portugal is conditioned by the legal situation of their presence, therefore the situations of clandestine people fall in the realm of a legal and regulative void, allowing situations of injustice, discrimination and marginality.14

An important governmental measure in terms of policy of integration of the immigrated communities was the creation, by the time of the social government, of the post correspondent to the High Commissary for the Ethnic Minorities (ACIME) that was integrated in the Ministry of Equality, extinguished in the last governmental reform of September 2000 and closed after the legislative elections of March 2002. However, the new social democrat government has shown the interest in the continuance of its existence and thus the new Commissary took office on July 2002.

The ACIME seeks to promote en effective integration of the immigrants in the Portuguese society through the creation of initiatives together with other governmental entities, from various Departments of the State, organisms of local power, churches, trade unions and non-governmental organisations. These incentives resulted in a number of protocols and agreements described in the annex.

Principal legislation measures concerning the immigration in Portugal

Law number 37/81 of 3rd October


Law of the Portuguese nationality

Decree-Law number 322/82 of 12th August


Regulates the Law of nationality

Normative Dispatch number 63 of 13th March


Creates the Coordination Secretariat for the Multicultural Education Programs (SCOPREM), in the Ministry of Education

Decree-Law number 212/92 of 12th October


Institutes the first process of extraordinary legalisation of illegal immigrants.

Decree-Law number 59/93 of 3rd March


Creates a new entrance, stay, exit and expel regime of foreigners (“Law of Foreigners”)

Joined Dispatch of the State Secretaries of the Social Security and Employment and Professional Training


Aims the insertion in the job market of the less fortunate groups, including the immigrants.

Resolution of the Council of Ministers number 38/93 of 15th May


Approves a programme of intervention that has in mind the social and professional integration of immigrants and ethnic minorities

Dispatch 170/ME of 6th August


Creates the Project of Intercultural Education in the scope of SOCOPREM/Intracultures

Law number 70/93 of 29th September


Law that reformulates and regulates the law of shelter

Law number 25/94 of 19th August and Decree-Law number 253/94 of 20th October


Juridical dispositions that reformulate and regulate the attainment of Portuguese nationality

Law number 3-A/96 of 25th January


Creates the post of High Commissioner for the Immigration and Ethnic Minorities

Law number 17/96 of 24th May


Institutes a new process of extraordinary regularisation of the situation of the illegal immigrants

Law number 50/96 of 4th September


Alters the electoral Law in order to allow the right of voting and eligibility to the local autarchies, in conditions of reciprocity, to the resident foreigners

Decree-Law number 37/97 of 31st January


Alters the regulation on the Law of nationality

Law number 20/98 of 12th May


Regulates the labour for foreigners in the Portuguese territory

Decree-Law number 244/98 de 3rd August


Regulates the entrance, stay, exit and dismissal regime of foreigners in the national territory (revokes the Decree-Law number 59/93 of 3rd March)

Law number 115/99 of 3rd August


Establishes the juridical regime of the associations representing the immigrants and their descendants, foreseeing the recognition of their relevance, as well as the right to technical and financial support from the State to the development of their activities and also the right to benefit from free broadcasting time in the public services of radio and television

Proposal Decree number 37/VIII (gov), of 26th July


Allows the Government to alter the juridical regime that regulates the entrance, stay, exit and dismissal of foreigners in the national territory

Decree-Law number 4/2001 of 10th January


Alters the Decree-Law number 244/1998, of 8th August, which regulates the conditions of entrance, stay, exit and dismissal of foreign citizens in the national territory

Regulation Decree number 9/2001 of 31st May


Alters the Decree-Law number 5A/2000, of 26th April, that regulates the Decree-Law number 244/98 of 8th August, that regulates the entrance, stay, exit and dismissal of foreign citizens in the national territory

5) A brief discussion of the media policies and the way they relate to minority media

Portugal does not possess a specific legislation for the minority media which restraints the few projects of the minority media, mainly connected to the written press, under specific conditions, to the general media legislation. However, the existent legislation reflects the concern with Portuguese multicultural reality and tries to respect its diversity and, due to the characteristics of the tissue of the immigrant population in our country, dominated by the communities that are originated from African countries where Portuguese is spoken, gives a particular relevance to the matter of lusophony and cooperation.

In the Preface to the 1st Edition of the Legislation of the Media15, of 1999, the Secretary of State of Social Communication at the time, Alberto Arons de Carvalho, refers the introduction of important changes in the policy of the sector of the media, among which the “(...) solidarity with Portuguese speaking African countries, through a policy of cooperation enhanced by the creation of RTP Africa and RDP Africa.” (p.9). It became a priority the implementation of policies that supported the lusophony and the cooperation in the sector of the media between Portugal and the countries of the Portuguese language community, since the “production and circulation of information constitutes one of the essential vectors to any democratisation and development process. Thus, what happened in the area of lusophony is that the cooperation in the sector of communication, naturally became a priority” (p.12). In this context RDP Africa was created on 1st April 1996 (broadcasting to the African Continent and to the area of Lisbon with a frequency of their own) and RTP-Africa was created on 7th March 1997 (whose broadcasts can also be watched in Portugal through cable TV). In May, of that same year the Alliance of the Agencies of Portuguese Language (ALP - Aliança das Agências de Língua Portuguesa) was also created. Nevertheless, since the independence of the colonies, enclosed in the lusophony strategy, that Portugal supports the development of local media, mainly radio and television, and training of officials.

Let us look now to the legislation for the public service of television and radio. In general terms, the contracts of concession of the public service for television and radio that were signed, respectively, on 31st December 1996 and on 30th June 1999, refer as their mission to the public service their social usefulness, namely through the combat to all forms of seclusion and cultural, social, religious, ethnic and sexual discrimination and, to what concerns the case of the radio, must correspond to the interests of the minorities of the different categories of audience (clause 4; paragraph c).

Clause 6 of the public service television refers as its obligations, among others, the maintenance of quality standards in a diverse programming – cultural, educational, documental, informative and recreational (paragraph b) that corresponds to the aspirations of different specific audiences, without any social, political, religious, ethnic and sexual seclusion (paragraph d).

In the case of the radio, paragraph e) of point 3, that deals with the general terms of the rendering of the public service of sound broadcasting, states that the radio should promote the creation of formative and educational programmes specially directed to children, young people, adults and older people with different educational levels, and to social professional groups and cultural minorities.

Therefore, as far as the present day, the guarantee of the existence of a channel of radio and television directed to the foreign communities resident in Portugal is granted by the State that has as its major target the Portuguese speaking population.

Though there are not specific supports to the implementation of projects within this scope, the Portuguese State promotes incentives to the development of the media, mostly regional and local media, and it is at the light of this law that the projects of the minority media, when fulfilling the legal conditions, can make an application. But what should also be stressed out, is that these conditions imply the existence of a an organized structure, that hardly is adjustable with the reality of those media.

6) Mapping Diasporic Media

Newspapers and periodicals

Palop – Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (African Countries having Portuguese as Oficial Language)

África Hoje (Politics, Economy and Culture)

Monthly Magazine

Editor: Alberico Silva Cardoso

R. Joaquim António de Aguiar, 45 - 5º Esq.

1099.058 LISBOA

Tel: 21 3862175/3839810

Fax: 21 3862667


Relatório dos Palop (magazine focuzing on the economy of Angola, Mozambique, Cape Vert, Guiné and S. Tomé)

Quarterly Magazine

R. Da Eira, 1, Algés

1495 Lisboa;

Tel: 21 41085528

Fax: 214109677


Cidades UCCLA

Quarterly Magazine

Casimiro Jesus Chantre

R. de S. Bento, 640

1250.222 LISBOA

Tel.: 21 3852585

Fax: 21 3852596


Afro-Letras - Revista de Artes, Letras e Ideias

Quarterly Magazine

Editor: Jorge Mendes Macedo

R. do Forno do Tijolo, 46 - 3º Dtº

1170.000 LISBOA

Tel.: 21 8153170

Fax: 21 9145121


Angola-Portugal Negócios

Quarterly Magazine

Editor: José Fernando Sousa Guimarães

Calçada do Marques de Abrantes, 68 - 1º

1200.000 LISBOA

Tel.:21 3966510

Fax: 21 3950847

Angola Informação


Av. da República, 68

1069-213 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 7962552

Fax: 21 7956000

Notícias de Angola


Av. da República, 68

1069-213 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 7942244

Fax: 217986405



Raízes - Laços e Língua

Quarterly Magazine

Estrada da Torre, 100 - 403 (s/2 - 2)

2750.768 CASCAIS

Tel.: 21 4864412

Fax: 21 4676186



África Notícias (Revista africana de actualidade e economia)

Bimonthly Magazine

Director: João de Barros

Av. 5 de Outubro, 10, 6º, 12;

1050-056 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 35636603

Fax: 21 3534194

África Lusófona (Política, economia, sociedade)

Monthly Magazine

Editor: José Roberto Ferreira

Rua Pascoal de Melo, 37

1000-232 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3304291

Fax: 21 3151648


Além- Mar (Revista missionária mensal)

Monthly Magazine

Editor: Arlindo Ferreira Pinto

Calçada Eng. Miguel Pais, 9

1200 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3955286

Fax: 21 3970344

Jornal das Caravelas


Editor: José Caliengue

Av. António José de Almeida, 32, 2º esq.


Tel.: 21 7933773

Fax: 21 7942058

Buletim da Associação Clube Desportivo Alto Cova da Moura

Quarterly Bulletin

Rua do Vale, 17

2720-606 Amadora

Tel.: 21 4905144

Fax: 21 4905144

Africspiano (oficial newspaper from the african students association from the ISCSP/UTL)


Palop and Brazil

Informação Lusófona

Monthly Bulletin

Editor: Homem de Gouveia

UCCLA - União das Cidades Capitais Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiaticas

Rua de São Bento, 640

1250-222 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3845600

Fax: 21 3852596


Casa de Angola


Travessa da Fábrica das Sedas, 7

1250-107 Lisboa

Angolé - Revista da Sociedade e Cultura

Monthly Magazine

Editor: José João Santos da Costa Oliveira e Jaime João de Sousa Ferreira

R. Latino Coelho, 6 - Venda Nova

2700-516 Amadora

Tel.: 21 4998707

Fax: 21 4998708


Cap Vert
Monthly newspaper

Editor: Jorge Sousa Correia

Rua Castilho, 23, 7A

1250-067 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3152631

Fax: 21 3152635


Informativo Aguinenso

Bimonthly Bulletin

Editor: Fernando Ká

Av. João Paulo II, lote 528, 2º A, Zona J de Chelas

1900-726 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 8370436

Fax: 21 8370287


S. Tomé e Príncipe
Maguita Tuátuá


Editor: Adriano Neto

Apartado 259

3000 Coimbra

Tel.: 239 492414

TPC (Associação de estudantes Moçambicanos em Portugal - núcleo de Lisboa)


Editor: Américo Cassamo

Av. de Berna, 7, c/v



Brasil Europa Magazine

Bimonthly Magazine

Editor: José Aessio Freitas Ramos

Av. Valbom, 28 a - 2º - Lt. 5

2750.000 CASCAIS

Tel.: 21 4863094

Fax: 21 4865419


O Brasileirinho

Monthly Magazine

Editors: Carlos Mellinger e Sérgio Mellinger

Al. Dos Combatentes da Grande Guerra, 247,5º

2750-326 Cascais

Tel.: 21 4838543


Guia Brasil

Quarterly Bulletin

Editor: Paulo M. A. Martins

Estrada das Laranjeiras, 144

1649-021 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 7267777/7248545

Fax: 21 7248546




Editor: José Aéssio Freitas Ramos

Rua Tenente Valadim, 33;

2750-502 Cascais

Tel.: 21 4848650

Fax: 21 4865419




Editor: Alípio de Freitas

Rua de São Pedro de Alcântara, 63, 1º dto.

1250 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3471580

Fax: 21 3472235


Portugal Brasil

Bimonthly Magazine

Editor: Albérico da Silva Cardoso

Rua Joaquim António de Aguiar, 45, 5º esq.

1099-058 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3839810/11

Fax: 21 3862746;




Informação - Timor Leste (Comissão para os direitos do Povo Maubere)

Monthly Bulletin

Editor: António Pinto Pereira

Rua Pinheiro Chagas, 77, 2º esq.

1050 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 3172860

Fax: 21 3172870



A Voz Académica de Timor (AAEUT - Associação Académica dos Estudantes Universitários Timorenses)

Bimonthly Bulletin

Editor: João M.ª Aparicio Guterres

R. Padre Gregorio Verdonk, 4 a

1900.000 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 8476258

Gazeta de Timor

Editor: João Silva

Associação Olho Vivo


Andarilho (Jornal do Projecto Nómada)

Scholar Newspaper

Instituto das Comunidades Educativas

Rua Nossa Senhora da Arrábida, 3/5, r/c

2900 Setúbal

Tel.: 265 573462/573544

Fax: 265 573688

A caravana

Bimonthly Bulletin

Editor: Filipe Figueiredo

Obra Nacional da Pastoral dos Ciganos

Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 43

1150-225 Lisboa

Tel.: 21 8875202

Fax: 22 8875202



Príncipes do nada

Quarterly Bulletin


Av. das Forças Armadas



RDP – África

Av. Eng. Duarte Pacheco, 6

1070 Lisboa


RTP – África
Av. 5 de Outubro, 197

1050 Lisboa

Principal online channels

África Hoje
África channel is the result of a partnership between SAPO (a portuguese ISP) and the editorial group LUCIDUS, that has several press publications, including the magazine África Hoje. This channel contents are mainly: news reports, concentrating in the 5 PALOPs, including business and economy, politics, sports, culture, etc. There are also several useful informations as the embassies adresses in Portugal and in the five countries being part of PALOP, ministeries and other offical entities, informations regarding travelling and tourism. There is also a Fórum for each of the countries and later thematic forums will be developed.

7) Conclusion

Until the end of the 90s, Portugal had only a model of specialisation of the migration flows based on the immigration that came from Portuguese speaking countries. The majority of foreigners that were legal residents of our country until 2000, inclusively, came from the Estados Membros da Comunidade de Países de Língua Portuguesa (Member States of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries), with special emphasis to Cape Verde, Brazil, Angola and Guinea.

At present, the structure of the Portuguese immigration is going through a change in its composition, namely to what concerns the national origin of the immigrants. In fact, as we previously pointed out, the immigrants that became legal in 2001, through the regime of permits to stay, were, in their majority, from regions that were part of the former Soviet Union, with an emphasis to Ukraine, Moldavia and Russia, as well as Romania.

Therefore, on a global perspective, Portugal positions itself as a sort of platform of multicultural immigration, with extremely diversified origins, thus constituting an exceptional case in Europe, with communities that come from South America, Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe.

In the future it is foreseeable the entrance of immigrants in Portugal, on a regular basis, due to the number of applicants, though in a more controlled manner, on the one hand because of the specific national and European regulation, and on the other hand due to the lacking of employees in professions of low level of qualification, the emigration, the ageing of the population, the low rate of unemployment and the high female rate of the working population.

To what concerns the policies of immigration, according to M.ª Beatriz Rocha-Trindade: “the present has the choice between a governmental policy of a ‘reactive’ type, that consists, mainly, in tightening the strings of the control of clandestine immigration, through the somehow discretionary limitation of the number of entrances and through an attempt of progressive integration of the resident communities – and a ‘proactive’ attitude, possibly based on the setting of annual quotas of immigrants to admit, according to their nationalities. In either of the cases, in time, the creation of new ways and processes of regularisation and legalisation of the situations of formal irregularities will become inevitable.”16

As we have seen, the number of media destined to the ethnic minorities is severely limited, both because of the reality of the Portuguese market itself and because of the lack of support to these sorts of publications. In fact, though in a reduced number, the majority of these projects are associated to the written press, and the radio and television projects are sustained by the public service - RTP Africa and RDP Africa, whose target audiences are still the communities that come from the Portuguese speaking Africa.

However, this reconfiguration of the Portuguese immigration that started in 2000, has been starting to introduce a higher dynamism to this reality. In spite of being new in Portugal, the eastern community already has three newspapers and some local radios grant them time for the broadcasting of programmes in Ukrainian.

Bearing in mind the fact that the insertion and full integration of the immigrants and their respective communities in the Portuguese Society will only be accomplished when the barriers established by the ethnic origins, geographic nationalities and legal nationalities have been crossed, the media, by their proximity to the local populations, represent a strong vehicle of insertion of these communities, on the one hand, as well as a way of affirming their identities, on the other hand. In this context an economical and technical support to the implementation of projects of these kind would be desirable, without forgetting the possibilities introduced by the new technologies, namely the internet, which usage enables the realisation of low costs and long range projects.

Can one refer to the existence of a minority media culture in Portugal? In spite of the historic data that was referred in this study on immigration in the last decades, the truth is that it is not yet possible to clearly state that there is in Portugal a field of local ‘mediation’ for the ethnic minorities. There is an entire work to be done both at an institutional level and at the level of the autonomous initiative of the communities themselves.



Relatório sobre a evolução do fenómeno migratório, Março de 2002, Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras e Inspecção Geral do Trabalho,

CUNHA, Isabel Ferin (coord.), MONTEIRO, Teresa Líbano; FIGUEIRAS, Rita, “Media e discriminação: um estudo exploratório do caso português”, in Revista Observatório n.º 5, May 2002, pp. 27-38

Pena Pires, Rui, “Imigração só se controla dando todos os direitos aos trabalhadores estrangeiros”, em entrevista a Luís Miguel Viana, in Revista Pública (Suplemento do jornal Público), n.º 324, August 11th 2002, pp. 5-7


VITORINO, António; «Objectivos da Política de Imigração da União Europeia»; in Revista Elo (Associação Portuguesa para o Desenvolvimento Económico e a Cooperação), N.º 34, Ano 10 – 2001, December/February.

Legislação da Comunicação Social, Gabinete do Secretário de Estado da Comunicação Social, Imprensa Nacional – Casa da Moeda, Lisbon, 2001.


ACIME, Combate ao Racismo, Meios Jurídicos, Lisbon, ACIME, 2000.

Compilação de Disposições Diplomas e Normas Legislativas para combate ao racismo em Portugal, poderá ser consultado em

ALBUQUERQUE, Rosana; FERREIRA, Lígia Évora; VIEGAS, Telma; Fenómeno Associativo em Contexto Migratório – Duas Décadas de Associativismo de Imigrantes em Portugal; Oeiras, Celta Editora, 2000.

CANOTILHO, José Joaquim Gomes (Coord.); Direitos Humanos, Estrangeiros, Comunidades Migrantes e Minorias; Oeiras, Celta Editora, 2000.

DUCAMP, Jean-Louis, Os Direitos Humanos contados às Crianças; Lisboa, Editora Terramar, 2000.

GARCIA, José Luís (Coord.), Migrações e Relações Multiculturais – uma Bibliografia; Oeiras, Editora Celta, 2000.

MARTINS, Alberto; Direito à Cidadania; Lisbon, Editora D. Quixote, 2000.

OLIVEIRA, Catarina; «Chineses em Portugal: - Comunidade ou Comunidades?»; Working Papers N.º 18; Lisboa, SociNova – Gabinete de Investigação em Sociologia Aplicada, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa; (Comunicação apresentada ao Workshop sobre Modos de Inclusão Cívica dos Imigrantes e das Minorias Étnicas em Portugal, realizado em Maio de 2000, na Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento).

OLIVEIRA, Nuno; «Discursos Políticos sobre Minorias Imigrantes: - A Construção de uma «Questão»; Working Papers Nº 16; Lisbon, SociNova – Gabinete de Investigação em Sociologia Aplicada, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa; 2000.

ROSA, M. J. Valente; MARQUES, M. Margarida; et altri; «Imigrantes Internacionais: - dos factos ao conceito»; Working Papers Nº 17; Lisbon, SociNova – Gabinete de Investigação em Sociologia Aplicada, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa; (Comunicação apresentada ao 5º Workshop do Programa Metropolis Internacional, Vancouver, Novembre 2000).

RUGY; Anne de; Dimensão Económica e Demográfica das Migrações na Europa Multicultural; Oeiras, Editora Celta, 2000.

SOUSA FERREIRA, Eduardo de; RATO, Helena; Economia e Imigrantes – Contribuição dos Imigrantes para a Economia Portuguesa; Oeiras, Editora Celta, 2000.

TRINDADE, M.ª Beatriz Rocha; “As políticas portuguesas de imigração”, in Janus 2001, Anuário das Relações Exteriores, Público, UAL (Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa), Lisbon, Novembre, 2000.


ACIME; A Integração dos Imigrantes e das Minorias Étnicas. Linhas de actuação do ACIME 1996/99, Lisbon, ACIME, 1999.

HENRIQUES, Mendo; RODRIGUES, Arlindo (et altri); Educação para a Cidadania; Lisbon, Plátano Editora, 1999.

LOPES, Policarpo; Portugal – Holograma da Mobilidade Humana; Lisbon, Editora Rei dos Livros; 1999.

O Lugar dos Imigrantes e das Minorias Étnicas nas Cidades da Região do Mediterrâneo; Metropolis International Workshop; Lisbon, Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento, 1999.

MARQUES, José Pedro; Os Sons do Silêncio: o Portugal de Oitocentos e a Abolição do Tráfico de Escravos; Lisbon, Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa, 1999.

OLIVEIRA, Catarina; INÁCIO, Andreia; «Nacionalizações em Portugal (1985-1996)»; Working Papers Nº 11; Lisboa, SociNova – Gabinete de Investigação em Sociologia Aplicada, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa; 1999/2000.

PEREIRA BASTOS, José Gabriel; PEREIRA BASTOS, Susana; Portugal Multicultural; Lisbon, Editora Fim de Século, 1999.

PORTES, Alejandro; Migrações Internacionais: origens, tipos e modos de incorporação; Lisbon, Editora Celta, 1999.

REBELO, Margarida; “A posição de Portugal no actual contexto das migrações"; in Janus 1999/2000; Lisbon, Jornal "Público" e Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, 1999; pp. 180-181.

REBELO, Margarida; "Grupos Étnicos em Portugal: o caso cabo-verdiano" ; in Janus 1999/2000; Lisbon, Jornal "Público" e Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, 1999; pp. 182-183.

"Residentes Estrangeiros em Portugal – 1980/1998 Que evolução?"; Lisboa, Ministério da Administração Interna – Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras, 1999.

ROCHA-TRINDADE, Maria Beatriz; CORDEIRO, Ana Paula; BEJA HORTA, Ana Paula (et altri); Sociologia das Migrações; Lisboa, Universidade Aberta, 1999.

TAVARES, Manuel Viegas; Insucesso Escolar e as Minorias Étnicas em Portugal: Uma abordagem antropológica da educação; Lisboa, Editora Brochado, 1999.

VALA, Jorge; BRITO, Rodrigo; LOPES, Diniz; Expressões dos Racismos em Portugal; Colecção "Estudos e Investigações"; Lisboa, Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa, 1999.


FALCÃO, José; “Racismo: as nossas desculpas"; in Portugal na transição do milénio (Pavilhão de Portugal da Expo 98); Lisboa, Instituto de História Contemporânea, 1998.

IOANNIS BAGANHA, Maria; "Migrações Internacionais de e para Portugal: o que sabemos e para onde vamos"; in Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, Nº 52/53; Lisboa, s/Edt., 1998/99.

N'GANGA, J.P.; "A Imigração e o Racismo"; in Portugal na transição do milénio (Pavilhão de Portugal da Expo 98); Lisboa, Instituto de História Contemporânea, 1998.

PEIXOTO, João; As Migrações dos Quadros altamente qualificados em Portugal: Fluxos Migratórios Inter-Regionais e Internacionais e Mobilidade Infra-Organizacional; Lisboa, ISEG – Tese de Doutoramento em Sociologia Económica e das Organizações, 1998.

"Relatório Estatístico 1998"; Lisboa, Ministério da Administração Interna – Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras, 1998.

SOUTA, Luís; Multiculturalidade e Educação; Lisboa, Editora Brochado, 1998.

TINHORÃO, José Ramos; Os Negros em Portugal: uma presença silenciosa; Porto, Editora Caminho, 1998.

VIEGAS, J.M.L.; COSTA, A. F. da; Portugal, que Modernidade?; Oeiras, Editora Celta, 1998.


Protocols established by ACIME

Actions for the Integration of Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities Protocol

The multiplicity of interacting aspects of a social, economical, demographic, juridical, sociological and psychological nature created the necessity to define strategies based in a deepen knowledge of reality, sustained in scientific studies that aim at contributing to the definition and enforcement of effective policies of social solidarity and at eliminating situations of social seclusion and promoting the social integration of immigrants and ethnic minorities in the Portuguese society.

Gypsy Culture Protocol

Promoted by the Ministry of Culture and ACIME aims at valuing the major aspects of the gypsy culture, promoting the knowledge in the remaining population and encouraging the intercultural dialogue between the gypsy citizens and the remaining Portuguese citizens.

Sports Protocol

Recognises the importance of sports and sports activities as a vehicle of contact, proximity and intercultural enrichment of the immigrant communities and their children (2nd generation) and the Portuguese community, as a fundamental element and a privileged tool of positive integration of those communities in the Portuguese society and as a way of deepening the bonds of solidarity between the different communities resident in Portugal, as well as with the countries of Portuguese language.

Euro Protocol

Promoted by the Euro National Commission and ACIME the parts established a partnership aiming at the implementation of a Common Action with the objective of incrementing the diffusion and information concerning the Euro and contributing to the adjustment of the country to the Euro.

Guinea-Bissau – Migration and Integration Protocol

Aims at establishing information and searching mechanisms, between the parts, concerning the migratory flow from Guinea-Bissau to Portugal and at promoting a qualitative integration of the Guinean population resident in Portugal.

Mozambique – Migration and Integration Protocol

Aims at establishing information and searching mechanisms, between the parts, concerning the migratory flow from Mozambique to Portugal and at promoting a qualitative integration of the Mozambican population resident in Portugal.

Protocol of the project “In every face... Equality”

Project promoted by OIM (International Organisation for Migrations) in partnership with ACIME and financed by I.C “Employment”/ “Eixo Integra” and FEDER (European Fund for the Regional Development). According to the objective of the information Centre, this project also counts with the partnership of the council of Benfica.

Protocol of the project “With the Minorities”

The project For (With the) Minorities is included in the Programme of the Digital Cities and is based on a protocol celebrated between the MCT, the ACIME, the City Councils of Setúbal and Amadora,the INESC and the following Associations: “Associação de Imigrantes Cabo Verdeana”, “Cabo Verdeana de Setúbal”, “Guineense de Solidariedade Social–Aguineense”, “Unidos de Cabo Verde”, “SOS–Defesa dos Angolanos”, “Espaço da Comunidade Caboverdeana – Concelho de Oeiras” and “Cultural Luso-Africana–Morna”.

The project as the prior objective to “ combat the info-seclusion (...) [considering that] the access of the less fortunate groups to the new technologies of information and communication can help the learning and educational and professional valuing, namely of the young people. (...) The project For (With the) Minorities [that is included in this programme] (...) aims at setting an exemplar action of support to the social integration of populations that are at risk of seclusion.

Voluntary Return Protocol

The results of the extraordinary regularisation process of immigrants that took place as a result of the Law 17/96 of 24th May, that was concluded on 11th December and the knowledge that a voluntary return of the referred categories of foreigners must be considered as an additional tool to a coherent and integrated policy of entrance, stay and exit of foreigners;

Its firm belief that the promotion of the voluntary return fills an important objective to what concerns the shelter policy and in accordance with the present legislation, namely the Operational Agreement subscribed between the Portuguese Government and the OIMA on 15th April 1976 and the Cooperation Agreement between the Portuguese State and the OIM celebrated on 15th December 1997.

São Tome and Principe – Migration and Integration Protocol

Aims at establishing information and searching mechanisms, between the parts, concerning the migratory flow from São Tome and Principe to Portugal and at promoting a qualitative integration of the São Tomean population resident in Portugal


Cooperation Agreement between the Portuguese State and the OIM (International Organisation for the Migrations)

Cooperation Agreement between the IEFP and the ACIME in joint initiatives in the domains of professional training, promotion of employment and social insertion.

1 Whose population sought in the Portuguese mainland non-specialised jobs made available by the wave of the Portuguese emigration to Europe throughout this period.

2 Many of these students founded groups of anti-colonial resistance in Portugal, later becoming the principal leaders of the liberation movements in those countries.

3 In any of the cases, the people had Portuguese nationality, therefore, even though they belonged to African ethnic groups, in juridical terms they were not considered international migrants and were not counted as such.

The gaining of independence of the overseas territories, throughout 1975, has brought about changes to the immigration that existed until then. In fact, after the independence, a distinction is made between the citizens that have the new nationalities of the former colonies and those who return to Portugal or stay in Africa, but maintain the Portuguese nationality. Therefore, in the first case they start being counted as immigrants in an international context and in the second case they count as returning people.

4 Data from the Service of Foreigners and Frontiers, Department of Planning and Information, Section of Planing, 2001 (provisional enquire, until 30th November 2001).

5 In 1999 there were 43.797 legal cape verden residents.

6 In 1999 there were 20.887 legal brazilian residents.

7 In 1999 there were 17.695 legal angolan residents.

8 In 1999 there were 14.140 legal guinean residents.

9 In 1999 there were 4.503 legal mozambican residents.

10 In 1999 there were 4.795 legal são tomean residents.

11 In 1999 there were 4.704 legal residents from China, Japan and India.

12 “As políticas portuguesas de imigração”, in Janus 2001, Anuário das Relações Exteriores, Público, UAL (Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa), Lisbon, November, 2000.

13 This normative group is not exclusive to Portugal; it is part of the Legislation of the European Union and the Council of Europe (VI Conference of the European Ministers Responsible for the Migrations Affairs; Warsaw, June, 1996).

14 In this context, the government has been implementing processes of extraordinary legalisation (namely in 1992, 1996 and 2001) that enables to give a situation of regularity to a great number of clandestine immigrants.

15 Legislation of the Media, Gabinete do Secretário de Estado da Comunicação Social, Imprensa Nacional – Casa da Moeda, Lisbon, 2001.

16 M.ª Beatriz Rocha-Trindade, “História da Imigração em Portugal”, in Janus 2001, Anuário das Relações Exteriores, Público/Universidade Autónoma, Lisbon, November 2000, p. 171

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