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FINAL REPORT
South-South and North-South Cooperation Programme to promote Sustainable Land Management

TCP/INT/3201 

May, 2011



TABLE OF CONTENT

  1. Background

  2. Technical Cooperation Project (TCP INT 3201)

    1. Regional Context

    2. Stakeholders and Target Beneficiaries

    3. Partnerships and management/organizational structure

    4. Expected results

  1. Implementation

    1. First Phase: July 2008 – June 2010

    2. Second Phase: July 2010 – June 2011

  1. Management, Monitoring and Evaluation

    1. Management Committee

    2. Project Evaluation

  1. Outputs

  2. References

  3. Annexes


1. Background

The Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries (CPLP), created in 1996, is an international organization composed of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe and East Timor – all signatories of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The eight countries include almost 230 million of people with different cultural and geopolitical backgrounds and, for all of them, land degradation and climate change issues represent a common problem to be addressed.

The CPLP is a privileged space for multilateral consultation and cooperation, with a legal body and an Executive Secretariat based in Lisbon. As its main objectives, the organization promotes political and diplomatic consultation between member states and cooperation in all fields, including education, science and technology, agriculture and public administration. The Special Fund of the CPLP, founded in 1999, fosters the “sustainable development of the Member States, economic use of natural resources, equitable distribution of wealth generated and welfare of the population, protection and preservation of the environment, and the training of human resources.”

This Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) CPLP/FAO finds its roots in the effort of the member states to improve their national capacities to implement the UNCCD, by sharing their experiences and technical support. During the COP 7 (Nairobi), the UNCCD Focal Points, looking for assistance, expressed their need for technical cooperation to the Global Mechanism. In 2006, at their Third Meeting, the CPLP Environment Ministers signed the Declaration of Brasilia, which established a platform for cooperation to help overcome growing challenges in the areas of environmental education, climate change, desertification and effects of drought, and to promote an integration of environment and development During the UNCCD COP 8 in Madrid, a high level side event chaired by the CPLP Executive Secretary endorsed a general framework of a CPLP Cooperation Programme prepared with FAO technical assistance, in line with the Decennial Strategic Programme for 2008-2018 approved at COP8 for the Convention to Combat Desertification.

In March 2008, the Portuguese Cooperation supported the TCP CPLP/FAO financing the participation of the member states’ representatives of the Ministries of Agriculture in the TCP’s meetings and to fund the missions of Portuguese specialists and UNCCD Focal Points.

Moreover, the Ministry of Envionment of Brazil took part in the design of the work plan and initial timetable of the TCP, conjugating the activities of the TCP with the ones of the Green Rooms Project (Projecto Salas Verdes). In this way, the communication strategy of the Network of Environmental Education followed the same direction of the actions focused to the Combat of Desertification and the Sustainable Land Management. Despite the further interruption of the project Green Rooms, the national actors involved in that project were mobilized to participate in the implementation of TCP INT 3201.

With the overall objective of support the Member States in designing an inter-sectoral and participative plan to combat desertification and creating a CPLP Cooperation Programme to combat desertification, the TCP also carried out activities to strengthen the institutional capacities needed to implement the CPLP Cooperation Programme for the Sustainable Land Management.

2. Technical Cooperation Project (TCP INT 3201)

2.1 Regional Context
As a result of soil degradation, food security decrease, levels of poverty increase and human and social capital deteriorate, making it increasingly difficult to release involved populations from the cycle of poverty. Particularly in semi-arid regions, land degradation translates into economic losses that are significant percentages of the Gross Domestic Product. In order to contribute to the reversal of this situation, the UNCCD seeks to encourage signatory countries to formulate National Action Plans to combat desertification that promote social participation, build capacity in correlated themes, promote remedial and preventive measures in soil degradation processes, and promote activities aimed at sustainable development and poverty reduction.

The systematic integration of combating desertification into development policies and into the formulation of effective tools and measures for design and implementation of National Action Plans to combat land degradation, as recommended by the UNCCD, requires the collaboration of the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Agrarian Development, institutional interlocutors directly related with sustainable land management, and also Ministries of Planning, Finance, Economy, and Foreign Affairs. Therefore this project must launched institutional dialogue and capacity building processes and enable multi-sectoral working groups to foster the proposed activities and to remain a privileged institutional structure for designing and monitoring National Action Plans.

The CPLP countries are threaten by desertification at different levels of intensity and territorial distribution, but land degradation represents a real and significant risk to their populations. Only four of the eight CPLP countries have formulated a National Plan to Combat Desertification, with low levels of implementation.

According to the United Nations Human Development Report of 2009, the PALOPs and East Timor are divided among the ‘Medium Human Development’ cathegory – as Cape Verde, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe – and the ‘Low Human Development’ cathegory – as Mozambique and Guinea Bissau.

Figure 1 – PALOPS’ and East Timor’s Human Development Index

Concerning the geopolitical background, PALOPs and Timor-Leste belong also to several regional groups and international organizations a part from CPLP, such as ECOWAS Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental, which includes Cape Verde and Guineas-Bissau and the Community for Austral Africa Development, know as SADC, whose members include Angola and Mozambique. Nevertheless, the link to the CPLP is based on the common language and cultural proximity due to the historical formation process of the populations.O diferencial, no entanto, da vinculação a CPLP está assentado principalmente na língua comum, em uma proximidade cultural determinada pelo processo histórico de formação das suas populações.

Regarding the desertification vulnerability, the PALOPs and East Timor present areas of high vulnerability, as stated in the table below.

Table 1 – Desertification vulnerability in PALOPs and East Timor



Country

Vulnerability to desertification

Angola

No vulnerability or low vulnerability humid areas; moderate vulnerability areas; high and very high vulnerability areas; dry areas.

Cape Verde

Moderate vulnerability areas; high and very high vulnerability areas; dry areas.

GuineaBissau

Moderate vulnerability areas; dry areas.

Mozambique

No vulnerability or low vulnerability humid areas; moderate vulnerability areas; high and very high vulnerability areas; dry areas.

São Tomé and Príncipe

No information.

East Timor

No vulnerability or low vulnerability humid areas; moderate vulnerability areas; a small area of high vulnerability.

Some CPLP countries also faced long periods of conflict, deepening structural problems in the management and development of strategies, related to several factors including:

• Low level of development in governmental and non-governmental organizations for concerted action in Sustainable Land Management;

• Insufficient capabilities in environmental management, project design, securing resources to implement actions, working in networks, and knowledge management;

• Limited involvement of strategic partners in order to enlarge the impacts;

• Relative isolation from countries facing similar challenges, and that could be strategic partners in the development process and technology transfer;

• Low level of information and experience in international cooperation, especially South-South cooperation;

• Lack of capacity to establish synergies with regional and national rural development policies, including policies and strategies for combating poverty and improving efficiency in national financial resource management.

In 2007, a process of consultations / with the concerned UNCCD Focal Points defined a general framework of their priority needs in terms of cooperation in light of the Paris Declaration, which highlighted: (a) training of human resources, (b) institutional capacity building, development of manuals, diagnostics and indicators, and (c) strategies for communication and building awareness; (d) partnerships and synergies.


2.2 Stakeholders and Target Beneficiaries
The beneficiaries countries of the TCP INT 3201 were the African Portuguese Speaking Countries and East Timor. The direct beneficiaries were the UNCCD stakeholders: the National Focal Points of UNCCD, of Environmental Education and of Ministry of Acriculture, and also the participants of national committees and working groups on land management and the technical committees of the SLM UNDP/GEF Projects.

During the implementation, the main donors and development partners of the involved countries were contacted and invited to participate and contribute to the design of the Cooperation Programme, in order to guarantee the complementarity of the proposed activities and to avoid any duplication of effort.



2.3 Partnerships and management/organizational structure

The TCP INT 3201 project was developed in partnership with the National Committees of the involved countries, particularly of Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe. Moreover, the project counted on the participation and the technical support of the Global Mechanism, together with a financial support of the Government of Portugal, represented by the Portuguese Institute for Development Support, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Portuguese Forestry Authority.

In Guinea Bissau, the local branch of UNDP founded the participation of local experts in the formation activities organised within the framework of the TCP, while the Ministry of Agriculture cooperated in the organisation of national events within the country. On the other hand, also UNDP Brazil and Senegal followed the project actions. In Cape Verde, the Ministry of Agrarian Development, the Ministry of Education and the Environment General Directorate supported national meetings and inside country missions. In Mozambique, the Ministry of Coordination of Environmental Action actively participated, leading the national consultancy and the Second Meeting of the TCP Steering Committee, involving the top level of the Ministry to welcome the guest countries. In Sao Tome and Principe the National Committee organized and supported the National Consultancy for the National Framework of Cooperation on Sustanable Land Management.

Furthermore, the TCP would not have been possible without the backing of the FAO Representatives in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Mozambique, the UNDP office in São Tomé and Príncipe, and the Office of the FAO’ s Emergency Programme in East Timor.

The CPLP Secretariat, direct partner of the project, played a fundamental role in the political articulation of the TCP, by creating diplomatic contact and advising project’s activities among the government of the Portuguese-speaking countries. The Secretariat also led the evaluation process of the TCP, consulting all beneficiary countries, and dialoguing with FAO to elaborate a set of indicators to evaluate both the processes and the outputs of the TCP.

At the same time, the Secretariat tried to get closer to the FAO, by proposing a Cooperation Agreement that leads to a meeting with the ADG of the Technical Cooperation Department in May 2010.

In the final phase of the project, the Secretariat showed their satisfaction with the results of the project and did homage to the team that implemented it.
2.4 Expected results
The TCP INT 3201 was implemented according to an adaptative management approach, by identifying opportunities to improve the actions aimed to strengthen national capacities on Sustanable Land Management, developing strategical partnerships and outperforming contextual changes that could threaten the project's success.

According to the original document of the project, there were five expected results:



EXPECTED RESULTS

1) Intergovernmental Management Committee created and operational;

2) CPLP Cooperation Programme to Combat Desertification prepared, endorsed by the technical and political actors of all member states, and widely communicated;

3) National institutions involved in the design and implementation of the Programme and trained for integrated planning to combat desertification;

2) Necessary resources to implement the Programme identified, and sources of financial and technical assistance committed;

5) Network of Green Rooms developed and operational in the communication and exchange of knowledge in the fields of development and combating desertification.

However, in May 2008, changes in the Brazilian Ministry of Environment resulted in the paralysis of the Green Room Project. Other consequences of this new structure included a series of constraints and disinformation among the Brazilian institutions and the withdrawal of Brazilian participation in the project.

In order to follow the TCP workplan, the regional consultant mapped the actors involved and interested in the TCP CPLP/FAO and designed the communication tools of the TCP. Contemporarily, the First Meeting of the Coordination Committee was organized. After this meeting, during the first week of September, the resolutions of the Coordination Committee were followed and a regular communication was maintained with the representatives of the Member States, both by email and telephone.

Following this change, the expected results were discussed and modified as stated below:




EXPECTED RESULTS

1) TCP CPLP/FAO Coordination Committee created and operational;

2) CPLP Cooperation Programme to Combat Desertification prepared, endorsed by the technical and political actors of all member states, and widely communicated;

3) National institutions involved in sustainable land management trained;

2) Financial Strategy of the Cooperation Programme designed and implemented;

5) Environmental Education Network involved and integrated in the communication Strategy

Starting from these expected results, a list of intermediary outputs has been drawn up to guide the actions of the TCP:



  • Map and mailing list of the involved actors to facilitate communication

  • Agenda of the Meetings of the Steering Committee

  • Report of the First Meeting of the Coordination Committee (with the support of the CPLP and of the International Consultant of the TCIE/Rome)

  • Webpage of the project (with the support of the International Consultant of the TCIE/Rome - not anticipated in the TDR)

  • Informative reports on the TCP (3 issues)

  • ToRs for the recruitment of national consultants and a facilitator for the Environmental Education Network and of a consultant that elaborates the proposal of a Socio-Environmental Atlas

  • Toolkit to support the organization and realization of the National Committees’ meetings (PowerPoint presentation, general information, pamphlet and proposed agenda)

  • Plan of Technical Missions to support the National Consultants and the National Consultancy Process


3. Implementation
The project was implemented in two different phases. During the first, from June 2008 to May 2010, the project was successfully executed and the expected outputs were achieved. Indeed, it was designed the South-South and North-South Cooperation Programme for the implementation of the UNCCD, which was approved by Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe.

The second phase, from July 2010 to May 2011, focused on the improvement of the proposal of the Socio-Environmental Observatory for Portuguese-Speaking countries as suggested by the new partner that started cooperated with the project: the Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira – UNILAB (University of International Integration of Lusophone African countries and Brazil). The outputs of this phase include a structured implementation project for the Socio-Environmental Observatory designed with the support of experts from Brazil, Cape Verde and Mozambique. During this second phase, seven missions were organized, two of them with the participation of UNILAB.

For the first phase an evaluation framework was drafted and shared with all stakeholders and National Commitees of the PALOPs. This framework follows the Logical Matrix of the TCP.

A set of indicators of the implementation process quality of the TCP were developed by the CPLP Secretariat and the FAO submitted to the beneficiary countries. The systematization of the evaluation results are presented in the Annex.



3.1 First Phase: July 2008 – June 2010


Objectives

Expected Results

Planned Activities

Implemented Activities/Achieved Results

Support to inter-sectoral and participatory National Action Plan to combat desertifica tion
Design of a CPLP Cooperation Programme

to Combat Desertification




Result 1:

Intergovernmental Coordination Committee created



Activity 1.1: Creation of Coordination Committee

composed of:




  1. UNCCD Focal Points;

  2. Environmental Education Focal Points;

  3. Ministry of Agriculture;

  4. TCP Focal Points in CPLP.

The Secretariat of the Coordination Committee should be ensured by the CPLP Secretariat, which will appoint one Focal Point to support the implementation



A.1.1.

● Coordination Committee created;

● First meeting of the Coordination Committee was held in Lisbon, in the SECPLP, from 22 to 23 September 2008.

● Participants in the first meeting included the representatives of all the CPLP’s member states, of FAO, of Portuguese Institute to Support Development, of Global Mechanism, of UNCCD’s Secretariat, of CPLP Executive Secretariat and Regional Consultant of the Project;

● During this meeting the Coordination Committee approved its communication tools and its responsibilities and attributions;

● From 16 to 29 June 2009 it was implemented a course on Design of Integrated Financial Strategies, in which the Coordination Committee took part even though it was not considered one official meeting;

● The II meeting of the Coordination Committee was held in Maputo from 27 to 29 April 2010 with the aim of validating the Cooperation proposal, as final phase of the project.

● The SECPLP supported the implementation of the TCP and the dialogue generated among the National Committees and FAO consultants, always acting as mediator and facilitator of information sharing among all the partners;

● Design of a project website and its publication starting from the CPLP website that were instruments to support TCP implementation;

● A Management Committee was created, as informal structure to support the project with representative of the SECPLP, of IPAD, of FAO, of AFN and of the Global Mechanism.









Activity 1.2.: Defining the Terms of Reference of the Coordination Committee

After its creation, the Coordination Committee should discuss and approve the functioning rules and preliminary methodologies to support the design of the programme, including at least the following tasks:


● Approve the workplan of the present TCP;

● Establish the articulation scheme for the technical team of the present TCP with the Coordination Committee;

● Define the possible components of the Cooperation Programme, identify and convene national inter-sectoral working groups , in technical and regional formations, in order to develop each component

● In partnership with the CPLP Network for Environmental Education, fecilitate the consultation processed with civil society and private sector about the proposal for a Cooperation Programme;

●Refine the proposals made by the national working groups to design a proposal for a CPLP Cooperation Programme, including a budget proposal to be discussed with donors and minutes of the ToRs for the identified projects and actions.




A.1.2.
● During the first meeting from 22 to 23 Septembers 2008, the Coordination Committee approved its communication tools, responsibilities and attributions;

● During the same meeting, it was decided that ‘The Regional Consultant should review the TCP CPLP/FAO implementation plan, re-framing the planned activities’. This task was accomplished and the output was shared with all the CC members. As defined during the meeting, ‘the member states have one week to comment and suggest changes’ to the memorandum. In the case of lack of comments, the tacit consent principle will be applied to the mentioned memorandum’.


● The ToRs were defined for: the National Committees, the National Consultants, the Missions of the Regional Consultant and for the Regional Consultant;

● The National Committees were created and installed:

o Cape Verde: February 2009 (recognized as permanent committee by ministerial communication)

o Guinea Bissau: February 2009

o Mozambique: April 2009

o Sao Tome and Principe: April 2009

o East Timor: in 2008, following the agreement with UNDP/GEF SLM Project
● Meetings of the National Committees:

o Cape Verde: July 2009

o Guinea Bissau: September 2009

o Mozambique: April 2009, April 2010

o Sao Tome and Principe: April 2009, April 2010

o East Timor: January 2010


● National consultancies were executed in Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, São Tomé, Mozambique and East Timor to sensibilize national stakeholders, support the the National Commitee and prepare the National Report

● National Consultancies hold on in Cape Vert, Sao Tome, Guinea Bissau,

o III Meeting of the Observadores Consultivos da CPLP – June 2009 to present the TCP proposal and ask for recommendations

● Meetings with the National Committees during missions of the Regional Consultant and the FAO Coordinator

o Cape Verde: February 2009

o Guinea Bissau: January 2009, September 2009

o Mozambique: April 2009, April 2010

o Sao Tome and Principe: April 2009, April 2010

o East Timor: January 2010

●Organizational meetings for the COP 9 in Cape Verde and Guinea Bissau


Mission to Brazil to meet the technical working group, including consultants of the TCP and brazilian experts in land management, intercultural communication and international cooperation







Ativity 1.3.: Design of the Coordination Committee’s workplan

After its creation, the Coordination Committee should design a provisional workplan for the two planned meetings and for the time between the two, including at least:


● Support to the working grups to design the Cooperation Programme and their working schedules;

● Analyse the outputs of the National Consultancies regarding the specialized works and national capacities to design the Programme;


●Analyse the consultation processes and public debates of the Programme, in cooperation with the technical team of the TCP and with the CPLP Environmental Education;
●Approval of the final version of the Programme proposal and minutes of the ToRs for the projects

●Support to the CPLP Executive Secretariat in finding the resources for the implementation of the Programme




A.1.3.

● During the first meeting from 22 to 23 Septembers 2008, the Coordination Committee approved its communication tools, responsibilities and attributions; the representatives of the Member States in the Coordination Committee were also members of the National Committees and receive the assistance of the national and regional consultants

●The National consultants received follow-up and support the Regional Consultant and the FAO Coordinator and the national reports were submmited to tue National Commitees for approval

●During the II Meeting of the CC the Programme Proposal was presented, discussed and approved.


●The SECPLP was supported by the FAO in identifying the sources of funds for the implementation of the programme:

o Contact with cooperation agencies as German GTZ, Luxembourg Lux Development, Spanish AECI and Cooperation Agency of Argentina

o Contact FAO to utilise Spanish Trust Fund for the promotion of the GDO

o Side event in the frame of COP 9

o Contact within the PALOP and East Timor, with the World Bank, the European Commission, the UNDP, the GEF and other institutions connected to the SNU

●The SECPLP was supported by the Portuguese AFN in identifying the representatives of the EC and of the Sweden PR of the EU to invite participants to COP 9

●The responsible of the project took part in two meetings of the Focal Points of the CPLP Cooperation to present the project and its development







Result 2: CPLP Cooperation Programme to Combat Desertification designed, elaborated and endorsed by technical and political actors of the Member States, with a planned schedule and well communicated.


Activity 2.1.: Creation of the National Working Groups

Starting from the activities of the intergovernmental Coordination Committee, the inter-sectoral working groups will be created with the participation of:

a) UNCCD national Focal Points;

b) TCP Regional and National Consultants;

c) National Focal Points for Environmental Education;

d) Ministry of Agriculture;

e) Ministry of Planning;

f) Ministry of Finance;

g) Ministry for Environment;

h) Research and civil society Institutions linked to Sustainable Land Management.




A.2.1

● The ToRs were defined for: the National Committees, the National Consultants, the Missions of the Regional Consultant and for the Regional Consultant;

● The National Committees were created and installed:

o Cape Verde: February 2009 (recognized as permanent committee by ministerial communication)

o Guinea Bissau: February 2009

o Mozambique: April 2009

o Sao Tome and Principe: April 2009

o East Timor: in 2008, following the agreement with UNDP/GEF SLM Project


● Meetings of the Regional Consultant and TCP Coordinator with the National Committees:

o Cape Verde: July 2009

o Guinea Bissau: September 2009

o Mozambique: April 2009, April 2010

o Sao Tome and Principe: April 2009, April 2010

o East Timor: January 2010


● National consultancies were executed in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde, Sao Tome, Mozambique and East Timor. In East Timor it was not finished as the consultant couldn´t prepare the report, even though the UNDP had offered its technical and logistic.
●The National consultants received follow-up and support by the Regional Consultant and the FAO Coordinator.
● Several online conferences were implemented among the regional consultant, the national consultants and the National Committees to monitor the design processes of the Programme.








Activity 2.2.: Design of the Programme
Starting from the creation of the working groups, it will be developed a dynamic to elaborate the components of the Cooperation Programme in cooperation with the technical team of the TCP, utilising face to face and distance communication and, if/when needed, involving consultancies at national and regional levels.

TCP Technical Team, Portuguese Cooperation and Brazilian Cooperation can provide specialized consultants to support the discussion and/or provide technical assistance to train involved technicians.

In between the meetings, a TCP coordination team - composed by the Main Consultant, the representatives of the working groups, of FAO and the TCP Focal Points of the CPLP – should promote discussions, consultations and collect information on synergies and cooperation opportunities among involved countries, as specified by the CPLP Environmental Education Network

In order to support the communication among the countries, a webpage will be created to spread updated information on the elaboration of the Cooperation Programme and on its implementation. Once per month an online debate will be realized to share the implementation progresses and to discuss the contribution of all the actors, in particular of the working groups.


After concluding all the designing modules, the Main Consultant will present a final version of the Programme to be approved by the Coordination Committee.


A.2.2
● The proposal of the Programme presented during the II Meeting of the CC is based on the identification of the needs representing the roots of the TCP formulation and the needs reports written by the national consultants and endorsed by National Committees

● The project team contacted Portuguese and Brazilian experts (academics and others) listening perceptions and feelings

● Interviews with the Portuguese Focal Point for the UNCCD were undertaken
● A Management Committee was created, as informal structure to support the project with the representatives of SECPLP, IPAD, FAO, Portuguese AFN and Global Mechanism.

● Consultation processed with various actors were implemented:

o III Meeting of the CPLP Observadores Consultivos –June 2009

o Meeting with the Portuguese IICT

o Specific meeting with CPLP’s OCs

o Meeting with the representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture of Brazil to discuss about Environmental Education – February 2010

● A project website was designed and published starting from the CPLP website;

● An informative pamphlet of the project was designed and published

● A part from several support missions, a number of online conferences were held between the Regional Consultant and the National Committees.

● Presentation of the proposal for the Programme undertaken during the II Meeting of the CC in Maputo, April 2010










Activity 2.3.: Dissemination and public participation

When the importance or the specificity of the topics will require it, the design of the Programme will include national and local consultations with civil society and private sector, with the support of the UNCCD National Focal Points, the National Consultants and the Green Rooms Network.

To conclude the national planning the TCP technical team, supported by the CPLP Environmental Education Network, will organize debates with civil society and private sector, through the organization of a seminar where guidelines, components and proposal for the Cooperation Programme will be presented. Recommendations, feedback and suggestions will be analyzed among the countries within the working groups

The results of the working groups will be systematized and shared through the webpage created to follow the TCP implementation, which could be accessed from the platform of the Green Rooms Network.



Activity 2.4: Elaboration of a Socio-Environmental Atlas

In order to promote the knowledge of social and natural diversity among the CPLP countries, a socio-environmental Atlas will be elaborated. It will collect desertification indicators, considering natural resources of the countries together with indicators and maps of the desertification vulnerability, and the identification of the affected areas. Special attention will be paid to the social aspects characterizing gender dynamics.




A.2.3.

• The below mentioned actores were consulted



  • Consultation with civil society in Guinea Bissau, in cooperation with the Instituto Marques de Valle Flor (Feb 2009) and with CPLP Observadores consultivos and civil society in Portugal (Nov 2009).

•Guidelines, components and proposal for the Cooperation Programme were presented during the II Meeting of the CC in Maputo, April 2010

• Recommendations, feedback and suggestions were incorporated in the revision of the proposal for the Cooperation Programme that have been endorsed by the authorities of the Member States

• A Concept Note of the proposal for the Cooperation Programme had been discussed within the CPLP and submitted to the Spanish Trust Fund for the MDGs in FAO

Library of the webpage actualized.



A.2.4.

• During the II Meeting of the CC in Maputo, April 2010, it was approved a concept of Socio-Environmental Observatory, instead of the Atlas. The CC recongnized that there were not enough validated information to compose the Atlas and the need of an information system to promote the systematization and validation of data and strategic information. The proposal of an Observatory responded to the TCP and to the resolution of the IV Meeting of the Ministries for Environmentl (Luanda, April 2008) referring to the CPLP Environmental Coopertaion platform.






Result 3: National institutions involved in conceptualizing and implementing the programme trained to design the integrated plan to combat desertification

.


Activity 3.1: Recruitment of the TCP Technical Team

This TCP ensured the recruitment of a main consultant and of national consultants to the training activities at national level and to design the CPLP Cooperation Programme

The national consultants to be recruited by the Project and the technicians provided by Brazil and Portugal, who were the technical team of the project together with the TCI Technical Office, should do their work of supporting the training and technical assistance along with the institutions that are involved in the national working groups, or other appointed by them, but their duty station will be the Ministry of planning.

The national consultants should be possibly recruited in the country, always guaranteeing to have the technical capacity to proceed with the support mission to the integrate planning. They could also be citizen of other CPLP member states.



Activity 3.2: Technical Training

The effort to training national institutions should involve four technicians and responsible of key sectors of the public administration and of civil society, allowing to:

• Understand and participate in international cooperation projects, following the dynamic South-South and North-South Cooperation;

• Understand and apply the UNCCD concepts and principles and the Sustainable Land Management regarding the sectoral strategic planning processes for sustainable development

• Understand the interrelations among global environmental threats (desertification, loss of biodiversity and climate changes) and the consequent risks to pursuing the objectives of sustainable development and poverty reduction;

• Promote the systematic integration of global environmental risks within the design and implementation of politics and sectoral measures, including the knowledge of national vulnerabilities;

• Understand and apply concepts and principles of Environmental Education with the aim of improve public access to information, environmental justice and participation in the processes of integrate planning.

The training dynamics – created by the TCP technical team and by experts recruited within the frame of the project or appointed by Brazil and Portugal – will include face to face learning courses and distance support.

The trained technicians are expected to improve their knowledge as well as to take part in the design of the Cooperation Programme.


A.3.1.

• A Regional Consultant was recruited and her ToRs were approved by the CC

• National Consultants were recruited and their ToRs were designed according to their objectives.

• These consultants were paid with funds provided by FAO

• No technicians were provided by Brazil and Portugal

All the national consultants are natives from the countries in which they are doing their consultancy

- The National Commitees participated on the identification and selection of the consultants with the support of the Regional Consultant.

A.3.2.

• National consultants were always supported and trained by the regional consultant and the FAO coordinator

•The Regional Consultant provided national consultants with training on background research methodology, interviews implementation, systematization and design of programme and project matrix.
• The meetings between the Regional Consultant and the National Commiettees to endorse National Reports were also training and formation opportunities
• Several conference calls were undertaken between the Regional Consultant and the National Committees to monitoring the designing process of the Programme

• National consultants were always supported and trained by the Regional Consultant and the FAO coordinator

•The Regional Consultant provided national consultants with training on background research methodology, interviews implementation, systematization and design of programme and project matrix.
• The meetings between the Regional Consultant and the National Commiettees to endorse National Reports were also training and formation opportunities
• Several conference calls were undertaken between the Regional Consultant and the National Committees to monitoring the designing process of the Programme

• No technicians were provided by Brazil and Portugal

• A face to face training was realized by Portugal – PRODER Seminar, including visits to the field





Result 4:
Necessary resources for the implementation of the Programme identified and committed. Clarity regarding the technical and financial assistance sources, particularly referring to the final beneficiaries.


Activity 4.1.: Identifivation of assistance sources

The identification of assistance sources is following three main axis: Brazilian assistance sources, North-South assistance sources and cooperation sources among PALOP countries and East Timor

The SECPLP, supported by the Coordination Committee of the Programme, FAO, and Global Mechanism, is expected to communicate and sesibilize the donors, particularly the European Union.

The mapping of the Brazilian assistance sources will aim at identifying the institutions that are already providing cooperation (bilateral or multilateral) and the ones that have relevant experiences and institutional capacities to cooperate: universities, research centers, civil society and governmental organizations will be considered for this mapping. The North-South assistance, both finalcial and technical, will be mobilized in cooperation with the Government of Portugal, with FAO and with the Global Mechanism. The cooperation opportunities among PALOPs and East Timor will also be identified, trying to recognize the contributions of each country in the implementation of the Cooperation Programme




4.1.• The SECPLP was supported by FAO in order to identify and map the assistance sources to implement the programme:

o Contacts with some bilateral cooperation institutions, such as the German GTZ, Luxembourg Lux Development, Spanish AECI and Cooperation Agency of Argentina

o Contact with the FAO to utilise Spanish Trust Fund for the promotion of the GDO

o Side event in the frame of COP 9

o Contact within the PALOP and East Timor, with the World Bank, the European Commission, the UNDP, the GEF and other institutions connected to the SNU

• The SECPLP was supported by the Portuguese AFN in identifying the representatives of the EC and of the Sweden PR of the EU to invite participants to COP 9


• A course was organized on Integrated Financial Strategies, whose concept will be included in the recommendations of the I Meeting of the Ministries of Finance of the CPLP

• Presentation of a concept note to the Spanish Trust Fund for MDGs in FAO.



  • The mapping of the potential assistance sources in Brazil was realized




  • Support to the CPLP countries at the ICID International Conference in June 2010, in Fortaleza.







Result 5: Environmental Education Network involved and integrated in the communication

Activity 5.1: Education to Combat Desertification through the Green Rooms Network

• Develop centres to Combat Desertification with the Green Rooms

• Disseminate the Environmental Education Programme of the CPLP


A.5.1.

• Result not achieved due to the fact that the project was not implemented because of logistic issues connected to the Brazilian executive entity.

The Environmental Education Programme of the CPLP was not formalized



3.2 Second Phase: July 2010 – June 2011

As requested by the CPLP Executive Secretariat, the TCP INT 3210 was extended after the II Meeting of the Coordination Committee of the project. The extension finds its rationale in the need to maintain the communication and the coordination of the activities while waiting for the results of the application presented to the Spanish Trust Fund for MDGs in FAO. In that moment, due to the international financial crisis, Spain ceased to fund projects. At the same time, the team of the project was contacted by the UNILAB, which showed its interest in leading the proposal for the Socio-Environmental Observatory, as an institutional strategy to communicate and cooperate with the PALOPs, East Timor and Macau. Due to the impossibility to keep on working with the AECID, the project took the opportunity to link the activities developed in the frame of the TCP to a Brazilian public university, whose institutional mission was exactly to promote South-South Cooperation (primary objective of the TCP).

Consequently, a joint workplan was elaborated with the UNILAB. This plan includes the realization of a number of missions to present and discuss the UNILAB’s proposal with the TCP partners in the Portuguese speaking countries that approved the Cooperation Programme during the meeting in Maputo, namely Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde, Mozambique, and also East Timor that requested to the TCP an additional support to finalize its national consultancy.

It was established a contact with the UNDP Brazil, which showed the interest in sharing lessons learnt and good practices of the UNDP/GEF projects in Brazil with the PALOPs. Furthermore, the following missions were realized and resulted in a bench of recommendations and guidelines for the project of the Socio-Environmental Observatory of Portuguese speaking countries:



  • October: Guinea Bissau

  • November: Brazil (Founded by UNDP Brazil)

  • December: Cape Verde

  • January: East Timor

  • February: Mozambique

  • March: Brazil

  • May: Brazil

A part from the initiative of the Observatory, the TCP INT 3210 has also worked as advisory for the PALOPs during the II ICID, held in Brazil, in August 2010 and for Guinea Bissau to organize - in partnership with the Global Mechanism and the Regional Office of the UNDP in Dakar - a workshop to elaborate the Action Plan of the Integrated Financial Strategy, in August 2010.

A joint effort of ESW, NRL and TCIN divisions resulted in a letter to the FAO representatives in the PALOPs aimed to present the concept note of the South-South and North-South Cooperation Programme for Sustainable Land Management, based on the proposal developed within the TCP INT 3210 and the discussions and recommendations of the TCP INT 3103 and GCP /INT/052/SPA.



4. Management, Monitoring and Evaluation

4.1. Management Committee

With the overall objective of promoting a joint management that involves all the partners of the TCP INT 3210, a Management Committee was created. The committee was composed by the TCP Coordinator within FAO, the CPLP Secretariat, the IPAD and the Global Mechanism. Despite having an informal structure, the committee has met almost every four months to follow-up and evaluate the achievement of the objectives of the project, and to implement the necessary adjustments. This practice contributde to the agility of the project and allowed to change directions when needed, implementing an adaptive management.

Concerning the Monitoring and Evaluation strategy, semi-annual and annual implementation reports were elaborated, presented and discussed within the Management Committee. Moreover, these reports were presented during the annual meetings of the Cooperation Focal Points of the CPLP, involving officers appointed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of all the countries, and also in the meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the CPLP.

4.2 Project Evaluation

At the end of the first phase of the project a list of process and outcome indicators was developed. These indicators were aggregated in an evaluation questionnaire and submitted to the members of the national committees within the beneficiary countries. The results of this survey were systematized, then presented, discussed and validated by the representatives of the countries during the II Meeting of the Coordination Committee, in Maputo, in May 2010.

According to the criteria of the evaluation, which included four levels of satisfaction – as presented in the table below – the overall implementation of the project was assessed between Good and Very Good.



Marking

Level of satisfaction

0 - 1

Inadequate

1,1 - 2

Sufficient

2,1 - 3

Good

3,1 - 4

Very Good

The achievement of specific objectives of the TCP was ranked between Good and Very Good (Mark: 3,25 - 3,75). The questions of this section were focused on the following aspects: contribution to the DEFI training, PRODER seminary and the designing process of Coordination Committee and National Committees to train the involved actors on inter-sector and participative planning to combat desertification (Mark: 3,25); the designing process of the South-South and North-South Cooperation Programme in terms of communication, methodology and management strategy of the CPLP/FAO TCP to combat desertification and Sustainable Land Management in the CPLP (Mark: 3,5); and about the conceptualization of a South-South and North-South Cooperation Programme to Combat Desertification and Sustainable Land Management (Mark: 3,75).

Some of the questions were focused on the changes related to the improved capacity of the actors involved in the CPLP/FAO TCP regarding inter-sector and participative planning to combat desertification. Below the answers:



  • The document is an opportunity to think about sustainable land management in the frame of the UNCCD;

  • Awareness raising about the presence of possible resources to be utilized in various projects and inter-sector programmes;

  • There was a straightening of the participative approach and of the actors in the elaboration of the integrate proposal;

  • There was a deeper understanding of the decision taking level. Thanks to this project there was awareness raising among the actors;

  • Guinea Bissau was able to achieve a position within the CPLP and now it is a reference in terms of visibility. This project also allowed to join efforts and to put in contact, on a regular basis, experts on CD, which before were isolated.

It was asked what were the results achieved and not expected according to the initial CPLP/FAO TCP. Below the answers to these questions:

  • The report of the consultancy stated an increased involvement of the institutions: mapping, where to find the Management Committees on Natural Resources and all the others institutions connected to land and water management;

  • The report also affirmed the need to consider existing traditional good practises, and therefore, it seems necessary to involve other actors.

A) Communication

The flow and the relevance of the communications of the TCP were marked between Good and Very Good (average mark on both questions was 3,5), particularly regarding the time of response and the relevance of the spread information.



Below the suggestions given:

Install equipments and IT systems that will allow the technical committee to communicate ‘on time’; improve the rapidity and facilitate the access to the information system.

B) Selection and follow-up for the national consultants

Transparency and participation in the selection and follow-up processes for national consultants were ranked as Good (mark: 3,0 – 3,25) from the majority of the interviewees, particularly regarding the questions on the dissemination process, the CVs analysis and the selection of consultants (average mark 3,25); methodology and workplan of the consultancy (average mark 3); follow-up and supporting processes (average mark 3,25); quality of the National Report – Framework of Cooperation Requirements (average mark 3,25).



c) Missions

Referring to the preparation, implementation and information sharing for the missions, the assessment varied between Good and Very Good (mark range: 2,75 – 3,5) on the questions regarding actors’ awareness raising (mark 2,75); information sharing (mark 3,0); involvement of the national actors in the preparation (mark 3,25); and, inter-institutional involvement and participation of government at several levels (mark 3,5).



D) Management Strategy

The management strategy of the project regarding the involvement of the Coordination Committee and of National Committees was marked as Good and Very Good (mark range: 2,75 – 3,5), particularly in the questions about the involvement of the Committee (mark 2,75); mobilization and number of the meeting of the Committee (mark 3); inter-institutional constitution of the coordination committee (Environment, Agriculture and Environmental Education) and inter-institutional constitution of the National Committee (involvement of relevant institutions and of the government at different levels) – specific for each country (mark 3,5).



Comments on this evaluation were the following:

Both the strategy and the structure are good but a better utilization is needed; the mentioned before aspects need to be maintained in order to guarantee an efficient implementation of the programme; moreover, it is necessary to maintain the same strategy and structure for the steering committee of the programme.

E) Mobilization of the National Committees

Suggestions received to improve the grade of mobilization and participation of the National Committees are as follows:



Provide the Committee with techno-financial resources to improve the implementation of its tasks;

Transform the National Committees into the Steering Committees of the Programme;

Create a post for a national coordinator of the programme;

Maintain an interactive and regular communication among the members on the implementation of the programme and ensuring the stability of the members of the Committee.

F) Training activities

The questions were focused on training courses or awareness raising actions needed to improve the involvement of the Committees in the implementation of the Programme. The following answers were given:



Promote the awareness raising training for the members of the CPLP Committee and share experiences among them;

The involvement of the CPLP/FAO will be the key to improve the implementation of the Programme, as well as an increasing commitment of the members throughout, for example, the distribution of an attendance sheet to stimulate the participation of the members.

Create and reinforce the capacities of the members of the National Committees regarding Sustainable Land Management and UNCCD and PAN; objectives and timetable of the 10-year strategy of the UNCCD, and compendium of the environmental legislation, together with the seek for funding.

5. Outputs

According to the original proposal of the project two were the expected outputs: the cooperation programme and the socio-environmental atlas.

The cooperation programme was developed starting from the reports on the Countries’ Demand Schemes, realized in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde, Mozambique, and Sao Tome and Principe and approved by the same countries. Moreover, in the first phase of the project a Concept Note of the Programme was designed and presented to the AECID, as application to the Spanish Funds for GDGs in FAO.

The socio-environmental Atlas was transformed in a proposal for a Socio-Environmental Observatory due to the lack of the necessary data to build up an Atlas. However, the national reports collected a bench of information that is really useful for the countries to plan their future activities in the sustainable land management field.

In the second phase of the project, two more outputs were developed: the concept of a Socio-Environmental Observatory, discussed in national workshops as before mentioned; and a letter written from the NRL, ESW, TCIN, LEGN divisions.

To sum up, the main outputs of the project are:



  • South-South and North-South Cooperation Programme to promote Sustainable Land Management (Annex 1);

  • Socio-Environmental Observatory Conceptual Proposal (Annex 2)

  • Application to the Spanish Funds for GDG (Annex 3)

  • Joint letter from the FAO divisions to the FAO representatives within the Portuguese speaking countries (Annex 4)

6. References
Academia Brasileira de Direito, 2008, Ajuste complementar ao acordo de cooperação econômica, científica e técnica entre o Governo da República Federativa do Brasil e o Governo da República Democrática de Timor-Leste para implementação do projeto “desenvolvimento florestal em timor-leste” , Disponível em http://www.abdir.com.br/juri/default.asp?id=52 acessado em 21 de Abril de 2010.

Banco Mundial, 2004, Considerações do Banco Mundial relativas aos empréstimos, pobreza e utilização de recursos - MDGoals, Disponível em < http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.131.6660&rep=rep1&type=pdf>, acessado em 21 de Abril de 2010.

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